Exhaled Carbon Monoxide Levels in Smokers and Non Smokers and Related Factors

· Lung Function, Tobacco Control

Iin Rahmania Inayatillah, Elisna Syahrudin, Agus Dwi Susanto
Departemen Pulmonologi dan Ilmu Kedokteran Respirasi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia,RS Persahabatan, Jakarta


Background: Smoking has been considered as a prime cause of carbon monoxide (CO) exposures. Exhaled air CO measurement is a reliable indicator for smoking status. This study aimed to measure exhaled air CO levels in smokers and non smokers and also to determine cut off point exhaled air carbon monoxide levels for smoking status.
Methods: A cross sectional study conducted from January 2013 until October 2013 with total 125 subjects consist of 85 smokers and 40 non smokers selected based on consecutive sampling. Interview was done to fill out question about sociodemografic and smoking habit, Fagerstorm test for nicotine dependence and Horn score for smokers profile were evaluated if the subject is smoker, followed by anamnesis, physical examination and breath CO measurement using portable CO analyzer.
Results: Average exhaled air CO levels were 22 (4;48) ppm in smokers, significantly higher compared to non smokers with the level of exhaled air CO were 5,83 + 1,82 ppm (p=0,000). Gender was the most correlated factor to exhaled air CO levels, men tend to have higher exhaled air CO levels compared to women. Cut off point of carbon monoxide level to determine smoking status is 8 ppm with sensitivity 91% and specificity 90%.
Conclusion: Exhaled air CO levels in smokers is higher than non smokers. The most correlated factor that influence CO levels is gender. Exhaled air carbon monoxide level < 8 ppm determine smoking status as non smokers. (J Respir Indo. 2014; 34: 180-90)
Keywords: exhaled air CO levels, smokers, clove cigarette smokers

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