Risk Factors of Very Severe Pneumonia Incidence in Children

Retno Asih Setyoningrum, Hedi Mustiko


Background: Childhood pneumonia is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. About 7-13% of childhood pneumonia present with very severe pneumonia with a high risk of mortality. Identification of risk factors is necessary for early intervention and better management.
Methods: Analytic observational study with a cross-sectional approach was conducted with subjects of pneumonia patients aged 2-59 months admitted in Respirology Ward and PICU Department of Pediatrics Dr. Soetomo Surabaya from January 2017 to December 2018.
Results: A total of 253 were roled in this study. Group with very severe pneumonia are 140 patients and 113 patients with severe pneumonia. Independent risk factors were analysed by chi-square test and Continuity Correction. Independent risk factors that intluence the incidence of very severe pneumonia in infants and children are patient's age (PR=1.365;P=0.009;95% confidence interval (CI)=1.089-1.712), low birth weight (PR=1.380;P=0.010;95% CI=1.115-1,708), prematurity (PR=1,412;P=0.007;95% CI=1,141-1,747), exclusive breastfeeding (PR=1,434;P=0.007;95% CI=1,093-1,880), nutritional status (PR=2,412;P<0.001;95% CI=1.832-3.176), comorbid factors (PR=1.902;P<0.001; 95% CI=1.485-2.435) and suspected bacterial causative agents (PR=1.952;P<0.001;95% CI=1.578-2,415).
Conclusions: Patient's age, prematurity, low birth weight, nutritional status, exclusive breastfeeding, comorbid factors and suspected bacterial causative agents are independent risk factors that influence the incidence of very severe pneumonia in children.


Severity of Pneumonia; Very Severe; Risk Factors


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.36497/jri.v40i4.147


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