Survey of Lung Function and Respiratory Symptoms Among Online Motorcycle Taxi Drivers in Bekasi City

Triya Damayanti, Jaka Pradipta, Ismulat Rahmawati, Annisa Dian Harlivasari, Erry Prasetyo, Bobby Anggara


Background: Online motorcycle taxi drivers have been heavily exposed to high concentration of hazardous air pollutants. This study aimed to describe the lung function and respiratory symptoms among online motorcycle taxi drivers and risk factors which influence them.
Methods: The study design was survey research design with sample number of 99 online motorcycle taxi drivers in Bekasi City. Lung function examination was done using spirometer (Spirolab) and the predicted value of lung function was using Pneumobile Project Indonesia. Risk factors and respiratory symptoms were collected using questionnaire.
Results: There were 10.1% of subjects with restrictive lung function and 5.1% with obstructive impairment. There were significant association between age of the drivers with restrictive disorders (P=0.006) and the mean difference of %FEV1 (P=0.039). There was a significant relationship between sex (P=0.001) and age (P=0.001) with the mean percent of forced vital capacity (%FVC). The respiratory symptoms collected were cough (17.2%) and shortness of breath (6.1%). There were no significant relationship between respiratory symptoms and lung function.
Conclusions: Online motorcycle taxi drivers had respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment, however the causal relationship with the workplace environment is still unclear. Moreover, education about the importance of using personal protective equipment is needed to protect respiratory systems from harmful substances. (J Respir Indo 2019; 39(1): 54-9)


motorcycle taxi drivers, lung function, respiratory symptoms

Full Text:



Badan Pusat Statistik Prov Jakarta Pusat. Statistik daerah provinsi Jakarta Pusat dan Utara. In, 2015:

Knibbs LD, Morawska L. Traffic-related fine and ultrafine particle exposures of professional drivers and illness: an opportunity to better link exposure science and epidemiology to address an occupational hazard? Environ Int. 2012;49:110-4.

Brant TC, Yoshida CT, Carvalho TS, Nicola ML, Martins JA, Braga LM, et al. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists. Clinics. 2014;69:867-70.

Lingren A, Stroh E, Montnemery P, Nihlen U, Jakobsson K, Axmon A. Traffic-rellated air pollution associated with prevalence of asthma and COPD/chronic bronchitis. A cross-sectional study in Southern Sweden. J Health Geog. 2009;8:1-15.

World Health Organization. Burden of disease from household air pollution for 2018. In. Summary of results ed. Geneva, 2018.

Lawin H, Agodokpessi G, Ayelo P, Kagima J, Sonoukon R, Ngahane BHM, et al. A cross-sectional study with an improved methodology to assess occupational air pollution exposure and respiratory health in motorcycle taxi driving. Science of the Total Environment. 2016;550:1-5.

Arphorn S, ishimaru T, Hara K, Mahasandana S. Ambient particulate matter may affect lung function of motorcycle taxi drivers in Bangkok. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 2017;68:139-45.

Jayes L, Haslam PL, Gratziou CG, Powell P, Britton J, Vardavas C, et al. SmokeHaz: Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses of the Effects of Smoking on Respiratory Health. Chest. 2019;150:164-79.

Mbelambela, EP, Hirota R, Eitoku M, Muchanga SM, Kiyosawa H, Lovel KY, Lawanga OL, Suganuma N. Occupation exposed to road-traffic emissions and respiratory health among Congolese transit workers, particularly bus conductors, in Kinshasa: a cross-sectional study. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 2017;22:11

Wijayarsi D, Trisnawati E, Marlenywati. Faktor - faktor yang berhubungan dengan kapasitas vital paru tukang ojek di pelabuhan Suka Bangun Kabupaten Ketapang. Jurnal Mahasiswa dan Peneliti Kesehatan. 2014.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Jurnal Respirologi Indonesia
pISSN: 0853-7704 - eISSN: 2620-3162
Address: Jalan Cipinang Bunder No. 19, Cipinang, Pulogadung, Jakarta Timur, DKI Jakarta 13240, Indonesia
Phone: +62-21-2247-4845

An official publication by
the Indonesian Society of Respirology (ISR)

Creative Commons License
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License