Clinical Profile of COVID-19 Patients from March 2020 to March 2021 in Abepura Regional General Hospital (RSUD Abepura), Papua

Yenny Belinda Jioe, Helena Pakiding, Nancye Lorein, Dessy Yuliana, Febrianti Manga Mangontan, Fergina Stefany Berhitu

Abstract


Background: SARS-COV-2 infection has widely spread and caused high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite more than one year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia, there is no scientific report regarding COVID-19 from Papua. This study aims to assess the clinical profile of COVID-19 patients in Abepura Regional General Hospital (RSUD Abepura), Papua.

Methods: We retrospectively recorded patients' age, sex, race, comorbidities, admitting and principal diagnoses, length of stay (LOS), and outcome (deceased/discharged) from the medical records from March 2020 to March 2021. Categorical data were described in frequencies and percentage, while numerical data were described in mean±SD or median and IQR. We analyzed the association between independent variables (age, sex, race, comorbidities, and diagnoses) with LOS and mortality rate.

Results: We included 461 patients (58.6% female) with a median age of 36.90 (26.35-49.35) years who were hospitalized for 17 (12-25) days, in which 5.4% mortality occurred. Overall COVID-19 patients were dominated by non-Papuan race (75%). The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (19.1%), electrolyte imbalance (10.2%), and diabetes (10.0%). Increased mortality rates were significantly associated with older age (≥65 years), cerebrovascular conditions, hypertension, coronary heart disease, liver disease, diabetes, and electrolyte imbalance (P<0.05). Moreover, several comorbidities, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and electrolyte imbalance, and a principal diagnosis of critical COVID-19, were associated with a significantly shorter period of LOS (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Mortality and LOS due to COVID-19 in RSUD Abepura, Papua, are influenced by older age and several comorbidities.


Keywords


comorbidity, coronavirus, COVID-19, length of stay, mortality, SARS-COV-2

Full Text:

PDF

References


Lai CC, Shih TP, Ko WC, Tang HJ, Hsueh PR. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;55(3):105924.

Sohrabi C, Alsafi Z, O’Neill N, Khan M, Kerwan A, Al-Jabir A, et al. World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Int J Surg. 2020;76:71–6.

Oda Y, Shiraishi S, Shimada M, Kurai O. Clinical profiles and outcome of patients with COVID-19 in a specialized hospital in Japan. J Anesth. 2021;35(3):405–11.

World Health Organization. Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 24]. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the-coronavirus-disease-(covid-2019)-and-the-virus-that-causes-it

World Health Organization Indonesia. WHO Indonesia Situation Report-18 who.int/indonesia Situation Report-7 INDONESIA Situation Report 19 Internal for SEARO [Internet]. 2020 Jul [cited 2022 Jul 19]. Available from: https://infeksiemerging.kemkes.go.id/

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Analysis of the social and economic impacts of COVID-19 on households and strategic policy recommendations for Indonesia [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 10]. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/indonesia/coronavirus/reports/socio-economic-impact-covid-19-households-indonesia

Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Papua. Profil Kemiskinan di Papua September 2020 [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 10]. Available from: https://papua.bps.go.id/pressrelease/2021/02/15/570/profil-kemiskinan-di-provinsi-papua-september-2020.html#:~:text=Persentase%20penduduk%20miskin%20di%20Papua%20untuk%20daerah%20perkotaan%20mengalami%20peningkatan,50%20persen%20pada%20Maret%202020

Samudra RR, Setyonaluri D. Inequitable impact of COVID-19 in Indonesia: evidence and policy response policy report. [Internet]. Jakarta; 2020 [cited 2021 Jul 10]. Available from: https://en.unesco.org/inclusivepolicylab/sites/default/files/analytics/document/2020/9/200825_Policy%20Report_Inequitable%20Impact%20of%20COVID%2019%20in%20Indonesia.pdf

Direktorat Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Penyakit Tular Vektor dan Zoonotik Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Sebaran Malaria di Indonesia [Internet]. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 24]. Available from: https://www.malaria.id/kasus

Gebhard A, Sonata B, Sahanggamu P, Post E. A case study on the role of the USAID-funded challenge tb project in increasing TB case notification in Indonesia challenge TB case study [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2021 Aug 17]. Available from: https://www.challengetb.org/publications/tools/briefs/Case_Study_FTMP_Indonesia.pdf

Ditjen P2P (Sistem Informasi HIV/AIDS dan IMS (SIHA). Infodatin Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan RI. 2019.

Surendra H, Elyazar IR, Djaafara BA, Ekawati LL, Saraswati K, Adrian V, et al. Clinical characteristics and mortality associated with COVID-19 in Jakarta, Indonesia: A hospital-based retrospective cohort study. Lancet Reg Health West Pac. 2021;9.

Burhan E, Dwi Susanto A, Nasution SA, Ginanjar E, Wicaksono Pitoyo C, Susilo A, et al. Protokol tatalaksana COVID-19 tim penyusun Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia (PDPI) Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Kardiovaskular Indonesia (PERKI) Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Penyakit Dalam Indonesia (PAPDI) Perhimpunan Dokter Anestesiologi dan Terapi Intensif Indonesia (PERDATIN) Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia (IDAI). 2020.

Rozaliyani A, Savitri AI, Setianingrum F, Shelly TN, Ratnasari V, Kuswindarti R, et al. Factors associated with death in covid-19 patients in Jakarta, Indonesia: An epidemiological study. Acta Med Indones. 2020;52(3):246–54.

Abate BB, Kassie AM, Kassaw MW, Aragie TG, Masresha SA. Sex difference in coronavirus disease (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis. Vol. 10, BMJ Open. BMJ Publishing Group; 2020.

Galbadage T, Peterson BM, Awada J, Buck AS, Ramirez DA, Wilson J, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of sex-specific COVID-19 clinical outcomes. Vol. 7, Frontiers in Medicine. Frontiers Media SA; 2020.

Liu K, Fang YY, Deng Y, Liu W, Wang MF, Ma JP, et al. Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province. Chin Med J (Engl). 2020;133(9):1025–31.

Fortunato F, Martinelli D, lo Caputo S, Santantonio T, Dattoli V, Lopalco PL, et al. Sex and gender differences in COVID-19: An Italian local register-based study. BMJ Open. 2021;11(10).

Papadopoulos V, Li L, Samplaski M. Why does COVID-19 kill more elderly men than women? Is there a role for testosterone? Andrology. 2021;9(1):65–72.

Biswas M, Rahaman S, Biswas TK, Haque Z, Ibrahim B. Association of sex, age, and comorbidities with mortality in covid-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Vol. 64, Intervirology. S. Karger AG; 2021. p. 36–47.

Ciarambino T, Para O, Giordano M. Immune system and COVID-19 by sex differences and age. Vol. 17, Women’s Health. SAGE Publications Ltd; 2021.

Lanser L, Burkert FR, Thommes L, Egger A, Hoermann G, Kaser S, et al. Testosterone deficiency is a risk factor for severe COVID-19. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021;12.

Hazeldine J, Lord JM. Immunesenescence: A predisposing risk factor for the development of COVID-19? Vol. 11, Frontiers in Immunology. Frontiers Media SA; 2020.

Haynes L. Aging of the immune system: research challenges to enhance the health span of older adults. Frontiers in Aging. 2020;1.

Pan D, Sze S, Minhas JS, Bangash MN, Pareek N, Divall P, et al. The impact of ethnicity on clinical outcomes in COVID-19: A systematic review. eClinicalMedicine. 2020;23.

Magesh S, John D, Li WT, Li Y, Mattingly-App A, Jain S, et al. Disparities in COVID-19 outcomes by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status: A systematic-review and meta-analysis. Vol. 4, JAMA Network Open. American Medical Association; 2021.

Wu Y, Xu X, Chen Z, Duan J, Hashimoto K, Yang L, et al. Nervous system involvement after infection with COVID-19 and other coronaviruses. Vol. 87, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. Academic Press Inc.; 2020. p. 18–22.

Fraiman P, Godeiro Junior C, Moro E, Cavallieri F, Zedde M. COVID-19 and cerebrovascular diseases: A systematic review and perspectives for stroke management. Vol. 11, Frontiers in Neurology. Frontiers Media SA; 2020.

Tadic M, Cuspidi C, Mancia G, Dell'Oro R, Grassi G. COVID-19, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases: Should we change the therapy? Vol. 158, Pharmacological Research. Academic Press; 2020.

Pranata R, Lim MA, Huang I, Raharjo SB, Lukito AA. Hypertension is associated with increased mortality and severity of disease in COVID-19 pneumonia: A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression. JRAAS - Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System. 2020;21(2).

Ramos SG, Rattis BA da C, Ottaviani G, Celes MRN, Dias EP. ACE2 down-regulation may act as a transient molecular disease causing RAAS dysregulation and tissue damage in the microcirculatory environment among COVID-19 patients. Vol. 191, American Journal of Pathology. Elsevier Inc.; 2021. p. 1154–64.

Pagliaro P, Penna C. ACE/ACE2 Ratio: A Key Also in 2019 Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19)? Vol. 7, Frontiers in Medicine. Frontiers Media S.A.; 2020.

John Fountain AH, Lappin Affiliations SL. Physiology, renin angiotensin system [Internet]. 2022. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470410/?report=printable

Simko F, Hrenak J, Adamcova M, Paulis L. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system: Friend or foe—the matter of balance. Insight on history, therapeutic implications and COVID-19 interactions. Vol. 22, International Journal of Molecular Sciences. MDPI AG; 2021. p. 1–8.

Kang Y, Chen T, Mui D, Ferrari V, Jagasia D, Scherrer-Crosbie M, et al. Cardiovascular manifestations and treatment considerations in COVID-19. Vol. 106, Heart. BMJ Publishing Group; 2020. p. 1132–41.

Pellicori P, Doolub G, Wong CM, Lee KS, Mangion K, Ahmad M, et al. COVID-19 and its cardiovascular effects: a systematic review of prevalence studies. Vol. 2021, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley and Sons Ltd; 2021.

Kong KA, Jung S, Yu M, Park J, Kang IS. Association between cardiovascular risk factors and the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: Nationwide epidemiological study in Korea. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021;8.

Li G, Chen Z, Lv Z, Li H, Chang D, Lu J. Diabetes Mellitus and COVID-19: Associations and Possible Mechanisms. Vol. 2021, International Journal of Endocrinology. Hindawi Limited; 2021.

Zhu L, She ZG, Cheng X, Qin JJ, Zhang XJ, Cai J, et al. Association of Blood Glucose Control and Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19 and Pre-existing Type 2 Diabetes. Cell Metab. 2020;31(6):1068-1077.e3.

Sharma A, Jaiswal P, Kerakhan Y, Saravanan L, Murtaza Z, Zergham A, et al. Liver disease and outcomes among COVID-19 hospitalized patients – A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Hepatol. 2021;21.

Weber S, Hellmuth JC, Scherer C, Muenchhoff M, Mayerle J, Gerbes AL. Liver function test abnormalities at hospital admission are associated with severe course of SARS-CoV-2 infection: A prospective cohort study. Gut. 2021;70(10):1925–32.

Kumar A, Kumar P, Dungdung A, Kumar Gupta A, Anurag A, Kumar A. Pattern of liver function and clinical profile in COVID-19: A cross-sectional study of 91 patients. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews. 2020;14(6):1951–4.

Guan W jie, Liang W hua, Zhao Y, Liang H rui, Chen Z sheng, Li Y min, et al. comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide analysis. European Respiratory Journal. 2020;55(5):2000547.

Pourfridoni M, Abbasnia SM, Shafaei F, Razaviyan J, Heidari-Soureshjani R. Fluid and electrolyte disturbances in COVID-19 and their complications. Vol. 2021, BioMed Research International. Hindawi Limited; 2021.

Nahkuri S, Becker T, Schueller V, Massberg S, Bauer-Mehren A. Prior fluid and electrolyte imbalance is associated with COVID-19 mortality. Communications Medicine. 2021;1(1).

Lippi G, South AM, Henry BM. Electrolyte imbalances in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Ann Clin Biochem. 2020;57(3):262–5.

Rees EM, Nightingale ES, Jafari Y, Waterlow NR, Clifford S, Carl CA, et al. COVID-19 length of hospital stay: A systematic review and data synthesis. Vol. 18, BMC Medicine. BioMed Central Ltd; 2020.

Torres Acosta MA, Singer BD. Pathogenesis of COVID-19-induced ARDS: Implications for an ageing population. European Respiratory Journal. 2020;56(3).

Zaenab A, Jose V, Cynthia CJ, Yousuf Z, Claudia M, Hamed S. The effects of comorbidities on COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital. Fam Med Med Sci Res. 2021;10(2):261.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.36497/jri.v42i4.375

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Respirologi Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


INDEXING & PARTNER

SINTA Garuda Indonesian Scientific Journal Database (ISJD) Indonesia One Search (IOS) Crossref

ROAD-ISSN Dimensions Google Scholar 

 

Jurnal Respirologi Indonesia
pISSN: 0853-7704 - eISSN: 2620-3162
Address: Jalan Cipinang Bunder No. 19, Cipinang, Pulogadung, Jakarta Timur, DKI Jakarta 13240, Indonesia
Phone: +62-21-2247-4845
Email: editor@jurnalrespirologi.org


An official publication by
the Indonesian Society of Respirology (ISR)

Creative Commons License
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Statcounter