The Association of Working Duration with Lung Function and Chest X-Ray Results in Ceramic Industry Workers of Company X, Mabar Medan

Marini Puspita Sari, Amira P Tarigan, Nuryunita Nainggolan, Putri C Eyanoer, Agus Dwi Susanto, Erlangga Samoedro, Caecilia Marliana


Background: Ceramics industry workers are often exposed to silica materials from ceramics. The aim of this study was to determine the association between silica exposure withlung function test and chest x-ray (CXR) results of the workers.
Methods: This was an analytical study with cross-sectional design conducted in the Ceramic Industry X in Mabar, Medan City. The dust level in the work station was measured using Personal Dust Sampler. Lung function was measured by spirometry and CXR was evaluated using the ILO interpretations.
Results: About 35 male workers were included as subjects, divided into 3 working stations namely precompression section of 11 subjects (31.4%), compression section of 13 subjects (37.1%) and 11 subjects (31.4%) in the sintering section. Dust levels in each work location are 24.8, 29.2, and 6.11 respectively. Of all subjects, 9 (25.7%) had respiratory symptoms, 21 (60%) had restriction in lung function and 8 (22.8%) had abnormal CXR (6 pneumoconiosis and 2 tuberculosis). There were no association between dust levels with lung function and CXR (P>0.05), but there was a significant correlation between duration of work with lung function. The FEV1 and FVC values of subjects working <5 years were 87.6% and 87.2%, while of those working ≥5 years were 68.1% and 68.7%, respectively (P<0.001). There were no correlation between working duration and pneumoconiosis finding in CXR (P=0,69).
Conclusion: The prevalence of pneumoconiosis among ceramic worker exposed with silica dust was 22.8%. There was a significant relationship between duration of work and decreased lung function, but there were no correlation between dust level in the workplace with lung fuction and CXR, and sobetween working duration and pneumoconiosis finding.


Ceramic Dust; Spirometry; Chest X-Ray


Y. Tanko, Y. Olakunle, A. Jimoh, A. Mohammed, A. Goji, and K. Musa. Effects of wood dust on cardiopulmonary functions and anthropometric parameters of carpenters and non-carpenters in Sabon Gari local government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Asian journal of medical sciences. vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 43– 46, 2011.View at: Google Scholar.

B. O. Alli, Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety, 2001.

MA Alim, MK Biswas, G Biswas, MA Hossain, SA Ahmad. Respiratory Health Problems Among the Ceramic Workers in Dhaka. Faridpur Medical College Journal. 2014;9(1).

Moch.Sahri, Abdul Rohim Tualeka, Noeroel Widajati. Quantitative Risk Assesment of Crystalline Silica Exposure in Ceramics Industry. Indian Journal of Public Health Research 2019;10(2); 605-607.

D. I. Bernstein, M. Chan-yeung, J.-L. Malo, and I. L. Bernstein, Asthma in the workplace, CRC Press, 2006.

Hnizdo E, Sluis-Cremer G. Risk of silicosis in a cohort of white South African gold miners. Am J Ind Med. 1993; 24:447-457.

Cnachoti N. Medical records: pneumoconiosis. J Med Assoc Thai. 1954; 12:369-80.

Varun Jampani. A Study Of X-Ray Image Perception For Pneumoconiosis Detection. India. Thesis. Center for Visual Information Technology International Institute of Information Technology Hyderabad - 500 032, INDIA.2013. 29-57.

HSE (Health and Safety Executive). Silicosis and coal workers’ pneumoconiosis statistics in Great Britain, 2019. This document is available from:

Sulfikar, Tyas, Cornelia dkk. Factors associated with lung function disturbance to textile industry worker in production department of CV. Bagabs Makasar city :2015;4 PP.23-34.

Rumana Akhter. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Sinterered Nano Alumina Ceramic Powder with Different Doping Concentration. International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR), 2015, ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P), Volume-3, Issue-12, 2015.

Nuryunita Nainggolan. Buku Ajar Respirasi Departemen Pulmonologi dan Kedokteran Respirasi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sumatera Utara: Penyakit Paru Kerja. Text book. 2017; hal. 351.

Agus Dwi Susanto, Faisal Yunus, Mukhtar Ihsan, Feni Fitriani. Penyakit Paru Kerja dan Lingkungan. Text book. Jakarta;2017:UI Press.

MA Alim, Biswas, Hosain dkk., 2014, Respiratory Health Problem Among the Ceramic Worker in Dhaka. 2014: 9 (1): 19-23, Majalah Kedokteran Indonesia, volume 37, no 10.

Suma’mur, P.K., 2013, Higiene Perusahaan dan Kesehatan Kerja (HIPERKES), Jakarta: Agung Seto.

SNI (Standart Nasional Indonesia). Pengukuran Kadar Debu Total di Udara Tempat Kerja. SNI 16-7058-2004.

Depkes RI. 2003. Modul Pelatihan bagi Fasilisator Kesehatan Kerja. Jakarta: Depkes RI.

International Labour Organization: ILO., 2000. World Lobour Report 2000: Income Security and Social Protection in a Changing World. Geneva.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Marini Puspita Sari, Amira P Tarigan, Nuryunita Nainggolan, Putri C Eyanoer, Agus Dwi Susanto, Erlangga Samoedro, Caecilia Marliana


SINTA Garuda Indonesian Scientific Journal Database (ISJD) Indonesia One Search (IOS) Crossref

ROAD-ISSN Dimensions Google Scholar 


Jurnal Respirologi Indonesia
pISSN: 0853-7704 - eISSN: 2620-3162
Address: Jalan Cipinang Bunder No. 19, Cipinang, Pulogadung, Jakarta Timur, DKI Jakarta 13240, Indonesia
Phone: +62-21-2247-4845

An official publication by
the Indonesian Society of Respirology (ISR)

Creative Commons License
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License